Borago officinalis Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
beebread beeplant borage starflower talewort
Borago officinalis

Medical use

Economic importance of Borago officinalis

Food additives flavoring
Bee plants honey production
Environmental ornamental
Human food potential as oil/fat vegetable
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals

Gallery

Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis Borago officinalis

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Libya ; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores, Madeira Islands; Spain - Canary Islands
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Lebanon; Syria
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
    • New Zealand: New Zealand
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Sweden
    • East Europe: Belarus; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Croatia; Greece ; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Naturalized
    • Northern Europe: Norway; United Kingdom
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Estonia; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine - Krym
    • Southeastern Europe: Romania
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Eastern Canada: Canada - New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec
    • Western Canada: Canada - Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin
    • Northwestern U.S.A.: United States - Montana, Oregon, Washington
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California, Utah
    • Mexico
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Caribbean: Cuba; Hispaniola; Puerto Rico
    • Western South America: Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Uruguay

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ABeta-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Plant
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Acidulant
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Allelochemic
Cyanidin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Delphinidin found in Plant
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anemiagenic
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Plant
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
AntiMS
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Pufa found in Seed (80430 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiacid
Glycine found in Leaf
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Pufa found in Seed (80430 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Plant
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Leaf
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antialdosteronic
Glycine found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Antianemic
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Antianginal
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antianorectic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Plant
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiasphyctic
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antibacterial
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticephalagic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Anticholinergic
Supinine found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot
Antichoreic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Leaf
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Anticoagulant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Plant
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Leaf
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidandruff
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Fructose found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antidote
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Plant
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Leaf
Antidysmenorrheic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Pufa found in Seed (80430 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalopathic
Glycine found in Leaf
Leucine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf
Zinc found in Plant
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antienterotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antifeedant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Antifibromyalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Plant
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antigastrotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Fructose found in Leaf
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Leaf
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Leaf
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antihypercholesterolemic
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antihyperthyroid
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antihypoglycemic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiimpotence
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiintegrase
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Leaf
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antileukemic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Plant
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antileukorrheic
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Antileukotriene-D4
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Zinc found in Plant
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antimalarial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimanic
Choline found in Leaf
Antimastalgic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antimelanomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antimitral-valve-prolapse
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antimorphinic
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Saponins found in Leaf
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Leaf
Antinephritic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antinephrolytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antineurotic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Plant
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7579 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiotitic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Antioxidant
Alanine found in Leaf
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Cyanidin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antipeptic
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Antipolyneuritic
Pufa found in Seed (80430 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antiprostaglandin
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiproteolytic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antipruritic
Glycine found in Leaf
Antipsoriac
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipulmonotic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antiradicular
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antiretinopathic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antisalmonella
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Zinc found in Plant
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Antishock
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antisickling
Glycine found in Leaf
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antispasmophilic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antistaphylococcic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Leaf
Antistomatitic
Zinc found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Antistroke
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithyreotropic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antithyroid
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Plant
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antitubercular
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Antitumor-Promoter
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Erucic-acid found in Seed (7390 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Supinine found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antitussive
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Antiulcer
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiuremic
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Antixerotic
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7579 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Plant
Bacteristat
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchosedative
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Bruchiphobe
Malic-acid found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Alanine found in Leaf
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Delphinidin found in Plant
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Mucilage found in Plant (300000 ppm);found in Shoot
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Leaf (21 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Serine found in Leaf ;found in Sprout Seedling
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Candidicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Leaf
Cardiomyopathogenic
Cobalt found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Leaf
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Choleretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Cholinergic
Choline found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Plant
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cosmetic
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Cyanogenic
Dhurrin found in Plant (350 ppm)
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Demulcent
Mucilage found in Plant (300000 ppm);found in Shoot
Deodorant
Zinc found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Plant
Erythrocytogenic
Cobalt found in Plant
Essential
Leucine found in Leaf
Valine found in Leaf
Estrogenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
FLavor
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Valine found in Leaf
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Fungicide
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Hemopoietic
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Choline found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Amabiline found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot ;found in Seed (20 ppm)
Intermedine found in Leaf (0.1 ppm);found in Shoot
Lycopsamine found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Supinine found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Hypertensive
Sodium found in Plant (11440 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Mucilage found in Plant (300000 ppm);found in Shoot
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Hypotensive
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Choline found in Leaf
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Leaf
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Saponins found in Leaf
Zinc found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7579 ppm)
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Irritant
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Quercetin found in Plant
Keratitigenic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Keratolytic
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Lactic-acid found in Leaf
Larvistat
Quercetin found in Plant
Laxative
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Fructose found in Leaf
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Plant
Lipotropic
Choline found in Leaf
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Litholytic
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Lubricant
Erucic-acid found in Seed (7390 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Lymphocytogenic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Choline found in Leaf
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Leaf ;found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Mucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Mutagenic
Acetylintermedine found in Shoot
Acetyllycopsamine found in Shoot
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Supinine found in Leaf (3 ppm);found in Shoot
Mycobactericide
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Delphinidin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Leaf
Neuroexcitant
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf
Neuroinhibitor
Glycine found in Leaf
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Neurotransmitter
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Leaf (7579 ppm)
Osteolytic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Oxidant
Alanine found in Leaf
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Leaf
Percutaneostimulant
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Perfumery
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Mufa found in Seed (220225 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Pesticide
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Cyanidin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Leaf (9 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Pigment
Cyanidin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Cyanidin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Iron found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Propecic
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Linoleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (360000 ppm);found in Seed (149370 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (200000 ppm);found in Seed (100000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Rosmarinic-acid found in Inflorescence ;found in Plant (7000 ppm);found in Shoot (500 ppm)
Respirastimulant
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Roborant
Aspartic-acid found in Leaf
Rodenticide
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Sedative
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Sialogogue
Malic-acid found in Leaf
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (46600 ppm)
Spermicide
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Spermigenic
Zinc found in Plant
Sunscreen
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed (18000 ppm)
Suppurative
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Sweetener
Fructose found in Leaf
Galactose found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Plant
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Leaf (360 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Glycine found in Leaf
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Uterorelaxant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Alpha-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Calcium found in Leaf (5005 ppm)
Fiber found in Leaf (131560 ppm)
Gamma-linolenic-acid found in Seed Essent. Oil (190000 ppm);found in Seed Oil (249000 ppm);found in Leaf ;found in Seed (84260 ppm);found in Fruit Essent. Oil (240000 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Magnesium found in Leaf (7436 ppm)
Niacin found in Leaf (129 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (67210 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasomotor-Stimulant
Hcn found in Plant (15 ppm)
Verrucolytic
Acetic-acid found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Allantoin found in Embryo ;found in Root (49 ppm);found in Sprout Seedling ;found in Seed (423 ppm);found in Rhizome ;found in Leaf (61 ppm)
Ascorbic-acid found in Leaf (5005 ppm);found in Shoot (39 ppm)
Hydroxyproline found in Seed
Zinc found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant (30000 ppm)
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(-)-bornesitol Plant
7-acetyl-intermedine Leaf 0.1 0.1
7-acetyl-lycopsamine Leaf 0.1 3
Acetic-acid Leaf
Acetylintermedine Shoot
Acetyllycopsamine Shoot
Alanine Leaf
Alkaloids Leaf 2 8
Seed 300
Allantoin Embryo
Root 49
Sprout Seedling
Seed 423
Rhizome
Leaf 61
Alpha-linolenic-acid Seed Essent. Oil
Amabiline Leaf 0.1 3
Shoot
Seed 20
Arabinose Plant
Ascorbic-acid Leaf 30 5,005
Shoot 39
Aspartic-acid Leaf
Beta-carotene Leaf 25 360
Borago-triacylglycerols Seed Oil
Calcium Leaf 930 5,005
Carbohydrates Leaf 30,600 437,580
Choline Leaf
Cobalt Plant
Cyanidin Plant
Cyanogens Leaf
Cynaustine Shoot
Delphinidin Plant
Dhurrin Plant 35 350
Erucic-acid Seed 2,500 7,390
Fat Leaf 7,000 100,000
Seed 130,000 383,000
Fiber Leaf 9,200 131,560
Fructose Leaf
Galactose Plant
Gamma-linolenic-acid Seed Essent. Oil 190,000
Seed Oil 249,000
Leaf
Seed 26,000 84,260
Fruit Essent. Oil 185,000 240,000
Glucose Leaf
Plant
Glycine Leaf
Hcn Plant 15
Hydroxyproline Seed
Intermedine Leaf 0.1
Shoot
Iron Leaf 33 472
Kaempferol Plant
Lactic-acid Leaf
Leucine Leaf
Linoleic-acid Seed Essent. Oil 360,000
Seed 45,500 149,370
Linolenic-acid Seed 25,000 73,000
Lycopsamine Leaf 1 3
Shoot
Magnesium Leaf 520 7,436
Malic-acid Leaf
Mucilage Plant 110,000 300,000
Shoot
Mufa Seed 74,750 220,225
Niacin Leaf 9 129
Octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic-acid Seed
Octadecadienoic-acid Seed
Octadecatetra-6,9,12,15-enoic-acid Seed
Octadecatrienoic-acid Seed
Octadecenoic-acid Seed
Oleic-acid Seed Essent. Oil 200,000
Seed 22,100 100,000
Palmitic-acid Seed 15,600 46,600
Phosphorus Leaf 530 7,579
Potassium Leaf 4,700 67,210
Protein Leaf 18,000 257,400
Seed 209,000
Pufa Seed 27,300 80,430
Pyrrolizidines Plant 2 100
Quercetin Plant
Resin Plant
Riboflavin Leaf 1 21
Rosmarinic-acid Inflorescence
Plant 500 7,000
Shoot 500
Saponins Leaf
Serine Leaf
Sprout Seedling
Sfa Seed 21,710 63,960
Silicic-acid Plant 15,000 22,000
Sodium Plant 800 11,440
Stearic-acid Seed 6,110 18,000
Steridonic-acid Leaf
Supinidine? Leaf
Supinine Leaf 0.1 3
Shoot
Supinine-viridiflorate Leaf
Tannin Plant 30,000
Thesinine Flower
Seed Oil
Seed 200
Thiamin Leaf 1 9
Valine Leaf
Water Herb 0 930,000
Zinc Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]