Ballota nigra Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
black horehound

Ballota nigra is a perennial herb of the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region and to central Asia, and it can be found throughout Europe. It is also naturalized in Argentina, New Zealand, and the Eastern United States. It blooms in the Northern Hemisphere from May to August.

Ballota nigra

Medical use

Economic importance of Ballota nigra

Bee plants honey production
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra Ballota nigra

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Morocco; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Denmark; Ireland; Sweden ; United Kingdom - England
    • Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    • East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part ; Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece ; Italy ; Romania
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
ACE-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Acaricide
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Root
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Arenarioside found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Forsythoside-b found in Shoot ;found in Shoot
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Analgesic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Anesthetic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Tannin found in Plant
AntiADD
Apigenin found in Shoot
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiHIV
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiMRSA
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiadenovirus
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antiaggregant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antiaging
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiallergic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Choline found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Antiarrhythmic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antibacterial
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antibronchitic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Anticancer
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Anticariogenic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antichoreic
Choline found in Plant
Anticirrhotic
Choline found in Plant
Anticolic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Anticomplementary
Apigenin found in Shoot
Anticonvulsant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Anticystinuric
Choline found in Plant
Antidementia
Choline found in Plant
Antidepressant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Plant
Antidyskinetic
Choline found in Plant
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antiedemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antifibrinolytic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiglutamaergic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihelicobacter
Sabinene found in Plant (4 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antiherpetic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Root
Antihistaminic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antihomocysteine
Choline found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Antileishmanic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antileukemic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antimange
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antimanic
Choline found in Plant
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antimetastatic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antimite
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Tageretin found in Shoot
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Choline found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Plant
Antionychyotic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Antiophidic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Root
Antioxidant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Arenarioside found in Shoot
Ballotetroside found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Forsythoside-b found in Shoot ;found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Root
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antiperiodontitic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Antiprostaglandin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiproteolytic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antiradicular
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Plant
Antiseptic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (4 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antishock
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Antistaph
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antistaphylococcic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Antisteatotic
Choline found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antistreptococcic
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Antistress
Apigenin found in Shoot
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antithyroid
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Antitumor
Alpha-humulene found in Plant (8 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Antiulcer
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sabinene found in Plant (4 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Anxiolytic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Apoptotic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Arrhythmigenic
Marrubiin found in Plant
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Astringent
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Root
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Bacteristat
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Barbituate-Synergist
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Bitter
Marrubiin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Bronchorelaxant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
COX-2-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tannin found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Candidistat
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Cardioactive
Marrubiin found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Choline found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Carminative
Copaene found in Plant (19 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Cerebrotonic
Choline found in Plant
Chelator
Tannin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Choleretic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Marrubiin found in Plant
Cholinergic
Choline found in Plant
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Root
Culicide
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Cyclin-B1-Inhibitor
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Cyclin-D1-Inhibitor
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Cytochrome-P450-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Verbascoside found in Shoot
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
DNA-Protective
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Root
Differentiator
Apigenin found in Shoot
Diuretic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Estrogenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Expectorant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Marrubiin found in Plant
FLavor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Flatugenic
Raffinose found in Root
Stachyose found in Root
Sucrose found in Root
Flatulent
Verbascose found in Root
Floral-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tageretin found in Shoot
Verbascoside found in Shoot
GABA-nergic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Gastroprotective
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Plant
HIF-1alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Hemostat
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Choline found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Hyaluronidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Sucrose found in Root
Hypertensive
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Hypnotic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypotensive
Apigenin found in Shoot
Choline found in Plant
Hypothermic
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
IKK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ileorelaxant
Choline found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Inotropic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Insectifuge
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Insulin-Sparing
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Interferonogenic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Irritant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Larvicide
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lipotropic
Choline found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
MAO-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Plant
MAPK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Memorigenic
Choline found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Mosquitocide
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Mosquitofuge
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Musculotropic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Mutagenic
Apigenin found in Shoot
Myorelaxant
Apigenin found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
NO-Genic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Gallic-acid found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Nematicide
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Nephrotoxic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Nodulation-Signal
Apigenin found in Shoot
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
P21-Inducer
Apigenin found in Shoot
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
PKC-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Verbascoside found in Shoot
PTK-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Parasympathomimetic
Choline found in Plant
Perfumery
Alpha-humulene found in Plant (8 ppm)
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Sabinene found in Plant (4 ppm)
Pesticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Germacrene-d found in Plant (127 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tageretin found in Shoot
Tannin found in Plant
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Phagocytotic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Pheromone
Germacrene-d found in Plant (127 ppm)
Phytoalexin
Verbascoside found in Shoot
Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Root
Progestational
Apigenin found in Shoot
Prooxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Apigenin found in Shoot
Radioprotective
Apigenin found in Shoot
Vicenin-2 found in Shoot
Secretogogue
Marrubiin found in Plant
Sedative
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Spasmogenic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Styptic
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Sunscreen
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Root
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Termitifuge
Caryophyllene found in Plant (35 ppm)
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Testosterone-Inducer
Delta-cadinene found in Plant (10 ppm)
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Transdermal
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (3 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (1 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Root
Tumor-Promoter
Linalool found in Plant (3 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Root
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Apigenin found in Shoot
VEGF-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Vasodilator
Apigenin found in Shoot
Vulnerary
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Root
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot
Caffeic-acid found in Leaf (2000 ppm)
Gallic-acid found in Plant
Tannin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Apigenin found in Shoot

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
(+)-(e)-caffeoyl-l-malic-acid Shoot
1-octen-3-ol Plant 4
13-hydroxyballonigrinolide Shoot
7-acetoxymarrubiin Plant
7-alpha-acetoxymarrubiin Shoot
7-glucoside Shoot
Alpha-humulene Plant 8
Alpha-pinene Plant 3
Alyssonoside Shoot
Angoroside-a Shoot
Apigenin Shoot
Arenarioside Shoot
Ballonigrin Plant
Ballonigrine Shoot
Ballotenol Plant
Shoot
Ballotetroside Shoot
Ballotinone Plant
Shoot
Beta-pinene Plant 1
Caffeic-acid Leaf 2,000
Caffeoyl-malic-acid Shoot
Caryophyllene Plant 35
Chlorogenic-acid Plant
Choline Plant
Copaene Plant 19
Delta-cadinene Plant 10
Eo Plant 300
Ferulic-acid Plant
Forsythoside-b Shoot
Shoot
Gallic-acid Plant
Germacrene-d Plant 127
Lavandulifolioside Shoot
Linalool Plant 3
Marrubiin Plant
Preleosibirin Plant
Shoot
Raffinose Root
Sabinene Plant 4
Stachyose Root
Sucrose Root
Tageretin Shoot
Tannin Plant
Verbascose Root
Verbascoside Shoot
Vicenin-2 Shoot
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]