Balanites aegyptiacus Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
desert-date soapberry-tree

Economic importance of Balanites aegyptiacus

Food additives flavoring
Human food fruit gum/mucilage oil/fat vegetable
Materials beads esential oils fiber gum/resin tanin/dyestuf
Medicines potential source of pharmaceutical agent
Non-vertebrate poisons disease vector control
Vertebrate poisons fish mamals

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Egypt; Libya
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Rwanda
    • West Tropical Africa: Burkina Faso; Cote D'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Togo
    • South Tropical Africa: Angola; Mozambique; Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia
    Cultivated
    • Northern Africa: Egypt
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia; Yemen
    • Western Asia: Jordan
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Allergenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
AntiPMS
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antiacne
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antiapertif
Bergapten found in Bark
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Anticancer
Alpha-carotene found in Seed
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Bergapten found in Bark
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antidermatitic
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Xylose found in Seed
Antieczemic
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antijet-lag
Bergapten found in Bark
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antileukodermic
Bergapten found in Bark
Antileukotriene-B4
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antimitotic
Bergapten found in Bark
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4000 ppm);found in Shoot (3800 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antiplatelet
Bergapten found in Bark
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiproliferant
Alpha-carotene found in Seed
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Bergapten found in Bark
Antipsoriatic
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Antitumor
Bergapten found in Bark
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4000 ppm);found in Shoot (3800 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
CNS-Depressant
Bergapten found in Bark
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Carcinogenic
Bergapten found in Bark
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Choleretic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Clastogenic
Bergapten found in Bark
Coagulant
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Colorant
Alpha-carotene found in Seed
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Cosmetic
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
DME-Inhibitor
Bergapten found in Bark
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Seed
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Dye
Xylose found in Seed
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Diosgenin found in Fruit
FLavor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Hepatoprotective
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4000 ppm);found in Shoot (3800 ppm)
Insecticide
Bergapten found in Bark
Insectifuge
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Irritant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Lipolytic
Bergapten found in Bark
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Mastogenic
Diosgenin found in Fruit
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Fruit ;found in Seed
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Molluscicide
Bergapten found in Bark
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Mutagenic
Bergapten found in Bark
Myocontractant
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (4000 ppm);found in Shoot (3800 ppm)
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Perfumery
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Bergapten found in Bark
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Phototoxic
Bergapten found in Bark
Piscicide
Bergapten found in Bark
Previtamin-A
Alpha-carotene found in Seed
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (220000 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (135000 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Pyrogenic
Arachidonic-acid found in Seed
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (104500 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Seed (77000 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Bark
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (3800 ppm);found in Shoot (4800 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (102000 ppm);found in Leaf (136000 ppm);found in Shoot (233000 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (390 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
25-alpha-spirosta-3,5-diene Seed
Alpha-carotene Seed
Arachidonic-acid Seed
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 390
Ash Fruit 52,000 81,000
Seed 33,000
Leaf 127,000
Shoot 66,000
Balanitesin Seed
Bergapten Bark
Beta-sitosterol Bark
Beta-sitosterol-glucoside Bark
Calcium Fruit 1,300 3,800
Shoot 4,800
Carbohydrates Fruit 791,000 886,000
Shoot 644,000
Leaf 715,000
Diosgenin Fruit
Fat Fruit 0 17,000
Leaf 42,000
Seed 300,000 550,000
Shoot 15,000
Fiber Fruit 102,000
Leaf 136,000
Shoot 233,000
Glucose Fruit
Seed
Linoleic-acid Seed 120,000 220,000
Marmesin Bark
Oleic-acid Seed 81,000 135,000
Palmitic-acid Seed 57,000 104,500
Phosphorus Fruit 4,000
Shoot 3,800
Protein Fruit 61,000 111,000
Shoot 275,000
Seed 219,000
Leaf 116,000
Rhamnose Fruit
Seed
Ribose Seed
Sapogenin Fruit 7,200 40,800
Seed 7,400 17,400
Saponin Fruit 70,000
Stearic-acid Seed 42,000 77,000
Sugars Fruit 380,000 400,000
Xylose Seed
Yamogenin Fruit
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]