Ammi visnaga Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
bisnaga khella lesser bishop's-weed toothpick ammi toothpickplant

Ammi visnaga is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by many common names, including bisnaga, toothpickweed, and khella. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species. This is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters. Leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and generally oval to triangular in shape but dissected into many small linear to lance-shaped segments. The inflorescence is a compound umbel of white flowers similar to those of other Apiaceae species. The fruit is a compressed oval-shaped body less than 3 millimeters long. This and other Ammi species are sources of khellin, a diuretic extract.

Ammi visnaga

Medical use

Economic importance of Ammi visnaga

Medicines source of khelin
Vertebrate poisons birds

Gallery

Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga Ammi visnaga

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Northern Africa: Algeria; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia
    Cultivated
    • Northern Africa: Egypt; Morocco; Tunisia
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
    Cultivated
    • Western Asia: Iran
    • Caucasus: Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    • Eastern Asia: Korea
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Pakistan
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Southeastern Europe: Albania; Greece; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Cultivated
    • East Europe: Moldova; Ukraine
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Cultivated
    • Mexico
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Cultivated
    • Caribbean: Cuba
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Plant
5-HT-Inhibitor
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Plant
Acidulant
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Acacetin found in Plant
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Allelochemic
Coumarin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Allelopathic
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Allergenic
Acacetin found in Plant
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Analgesic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Anesthetic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Anthelmintic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
AntiADD
Phenylalanine found in Plant
AntiCVI
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antiacne
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antiaflatoxin
Acacetin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiaging
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergenic
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Acacetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antialopecic
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Antialzheimeran
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Antianginal
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiapoplectic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiappetant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Antiarteriosclerotic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Visnadin found in Seed
Antiatherogenic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiatherosclerotic
Ammiol found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antibacterial
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antibrucellosic
Coumarin found in Plant
Anticancer
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Anticapillary-Fragility
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Anticariogenic
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Anticlastogen
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Visamminol found in Seed
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidementia
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antidepressant
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xylose found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Antidiuretic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Antiedemic
Coumarin found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antielastase
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiemetic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antierythemic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiescherichic
Flavone found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiesherichic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Flavone found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifeedant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antifertility
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifibrositic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Antiflu
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastric
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antigonadotrophic
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihematuric
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antihemorrhoidal
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antihepatotoxic
Glucose found in Plant
Glucuronic-acid found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiherpetic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antihistaminic
Acacetin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antikeratotic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antiketotic
Glucose found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileucodermic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antileukemic
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukodermic
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Antileukorrheic
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotriene-D4
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipogenic
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilymphedemic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antimalarial
Acacetin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antimelanomic
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antimetastatic
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antimitotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antimononuccleotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Acacetin found in Plant
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antimycoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antimycotic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinephritic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antineuralgic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Antinitrosaminic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antioxidant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiparkinsonian
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipityriasic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Flavone found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiproliferative
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprotozoal
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antipruritic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antipsittacotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Coumarin found in Plant
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antipurpuric
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Antiretroviral
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Antiscleromyxoedemic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antiseptic
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antisickling
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Avisan found in Plant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antisunburn
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombogenic
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antithyroid
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antitoxoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antitubercular
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antitumor
Coumarin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Antitussive
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Antiulcer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Visnadin found in Seed
Antiulcerogenic
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Antivaginitic
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antiviral
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Antivitiligic
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Antixerotic
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Anxiolytic
Flavone found in Plant
Apoptotic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Acacetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Artemicide
Alpha-pyrone found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Bacteriostatic
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Bacteristat
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchodilator
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Bruchifuge
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Coumarin found in Plant
Bufocide
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
COMP-Inhibitor
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-2-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Visnadin found in Seed
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Candidicide
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Candidistat
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Capillarigenic
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Coumarin found in Plant
Cardiotonic
Coumarin found in Plant
Carminative
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Chemopreventive
Coumarin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Choleretic
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Cicatrizant
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Convulsant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cosmetic
Behenic-acid found in Plant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Counterirritant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Cytotoxic
Alpha-pyrone found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
DME-Inhibitor
Coumarin found in Plant
Decongestant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Deliriant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Dermatitigenic
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Detoxicant
Glucuronic-acid found in Plant
Diagnostic
Xylose found in Plant
Diaphoretic
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Avisan found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Dye
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Xylose found in Plant
Ecbolic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Emetic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Coumarin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Epileptigenic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Estrogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Expectorant
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Camphor found in Essential Oil
FLavor
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Fungicide
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Fungistat
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Hemorrhagic
Coumarin found in Plant
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Acacetin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Coumarin found in Plant
Herbicide
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Plant
Hypertrichotic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Hypnotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Visnadin found in Seed
Hypoglycemic
Coumarin found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Hypotensive
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Avisan found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Ileorelaxant
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Immunostimulant
Astragalin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Coumarin found in Plant
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insect-Repellent
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Insecticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Insectifuge
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Insectiphile
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Interleukin-6-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Acacetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Irritant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Keratolytic
Lactic-acid found in Plant
Larvistat
Coumarin found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Laxative
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Lipolytic
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Lubricant
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Lymphocytogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Lymphokinetic
Coumarin found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Molluscicide
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Monoamine-Precursor
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Mosquitofuge
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Motor-Depressant
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Mutagenic
Acacetin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Myoprotective
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myorelaxant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Delphinidin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Narcotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Myristic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Occuloirritant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ovicide
Coumarin found in Plant
Oviposition-Stimulant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Oxidase-Inhibitor
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Camphor found in Essential Oil
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Perfumery
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Pesticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Flavone found in Plant
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Isoquercetin found in Plant
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Rhamnocitrin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Shikimic-acid found in Plant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Phototoxic
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Phytoalexin
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Pigment
Delphinidin found in Plant
Piscicide
Coumarin found in Plant
Isopimpinellin found in Plant
Xanthotoxin found in Plant
Plasmodicide
Acacetin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Prooxidant
Delphinidin found in Plant
Propecic
Oleic-acid found in Seed
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Acacetin found in Plant
Furocoumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rhamnetin found in Plant
Radioprotective
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Renoirritant
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Respirainhibitor
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Respirastimulant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Respirodepressant
Coumarin found in Plant
Rodenticide
Coumarin found in Plant
Rubefacient
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Sedative
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Coumarin found in Plant
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed
Spermicide
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Stimulant
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Sunscreen
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Termiticide
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Acacetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Isoquercitrin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Kaempferol found in Plant
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Transdermal
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Tremorigenic
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Trichomonicide
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Isorhamnetin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Khellin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Myricetin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Visnadin found in Seed
Visnagin found in Seed (10000 ppm)
Vasopressor
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
Vermicide
Carvone found in Essential Oil
Vermifuge
Cinnamic-acid found in Plant
Verrucolytic
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Vibriocide
Camphor found in Essential Oil
Vulnerary
Alpha-terpineol found in Essential Oil
Terpinen-4-ol found in Essential Oil
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Rutin found in Flower ;found in Leaf
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
2-methyl-5,8-dimethoxy-furano-(4',5',6,7)-chromone Plant
3',4'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dihydroseselin Plant
5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-chromone Plant
5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone Plant
8-hydroxy-5-methoxy-psoralen Plant
Acacetin Plant
Alpha-pyrone Plant
Alpha-spinasterol-glucoside Plant
Alpha-terpineol Essential Oil
Ammiol Seed
Anthocyanidin Plant
Arachidic-acid Plant
Astragalin Flower
Leaf
Avisan Plant
Behenic-acid Plant
Benzopyrone Plant
Camphor Essential Oil
Carvone Essential Oil
Chromones Flower 11,460 15,900
Leaf 4,080 4,880
Root 70 120
Petiole 200 260
Cinnamic-acid Plant
Cis-linalol-oxide Essential Oil
Coumarin Plant
D-khellactone Plant
Delphinidin Plant
Dihydrosamidin Seed
Dihydroseline Plant
Eo Seed 200 300
Fat Seed 120,000 180,000
Flavone Plant
Furanochromone Seed 10,000 40,000
Furanocoumarin Plant
Furochrome Plant
Furocoumarin Plant
Gamma-pyrone Seed 10,000 40,000
Glucose Plant
Glucuronic-acid Plant
Isopimpinellin Plant
Isoquercetin Plant
Isoquercitrin Flower
Leaf
Isorhamnetin Plant
Isorhamnetin-3-sulfate Plant
Kaempferol Plant
Kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside Flower
Leaf
Kaempferol-3-glycoside Plant
Khellactone Seed
Khellactone-diacetate Plant
Khellin Seed 3,000 10,000
Khellinin Seed 10,000
Khellinol Seed
Khellinone Seed
Khellol Seed 300 1,000
Khellol-glucoside Plant 3,000
Khellol-glycoside Plant
L-khellactone Plant
Lactic-acid Plant
Linalol Essential Oil
Marmedin Plant
Mercuric-acetate Plant
Myricetin Flower
Leaf
Myricetin-3-rhamnoside Flower
Leaf
Myricetin-3-xylogalactoside Plant
Myricetin-3-xyloglycoglucuronide Plant
Myricetin-diglycoside Flower
Leaf
Myricetin-monoglycoside Flower
Leaf
Myricetin-triglycoside Flower
Leaf
Myricetin-xyloglycoglucuronide Plant
Myristic-acid Plant
Norkhellin Plant
Octadecadienoic-acid Plant
Octadecenoic-acid Plant
Oleic-acid Seed
Palmitic-acid Seed
Petroselinic-acid Plant
Peucenin Plant
Phenylalanine Plant
Protein Fruit 120,000 180,000
Pyranocoumarin Seed 2,000 5,000
Quercetin Plant
Quercetin-3-0-glycoside Plant
Quercetin-3-0-rutinoside Plant
Rhamnazin Plant
Rhamnetin Plant
Rhamnocitrin Plant
Rhamnose Plant
Rutin Flower
Leaf
Rutinose Plant
Samidin Seed
Shikimic-acid Plant
Stearic-acid Plant
Stigmasterol-glucoside Plant
Tannins Plant
Terpinen-4-ol Essential Oil
Trans-linalol-oxide Essential Oil
Visammidin Seed
Visamminol Seed
Visnadin Seed
Visnagan Plant
Visnagane Seed 2,000 5,000
Visnagin Seed 450 10,000
Visnaginin Seed
Visnaginone Seed
Visnagion Plant
Visnammin Plant
Xanthotoxin Plant
Xylose Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]