Allium ampeloprasum Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
great-head garlic Levant garlic wild leek

Allium ampeloprasum is a member of the onion genus Allium. The wild plant is commonly known as wild leek or broadleaf wild leek. Its native range is southern Europe to western Asia, but it is cultivated in many other places and has become naturalized in many countries. Allium ampeloprasum is regarded as native to all the countries bordering on the Black, Adriatic, and Mediterranean Seas from Portugal to Egypt to Romania. In Russia and Ukraine, it is considered invasive except in Crimea, where it is native. It is also native to Ethiopia, Uzbekistan, Iran and Iraq. It is considered naturalized in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Czech Republic, the Baltic States, Belarus, the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, China, Australia, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the United States, Gal√°pagos, and Argentina. The species may have been introduced to Britain by prehistoric people, where its habitat consists of rocky places near the coast in south-west England and Wales. Allium ampeloprasum has been differentiated into three cultivated vegetables, namely leek, elephant garlic and kurrat.

Allium ampeloprasum

Medical use

Economic importance of Allium ampeloprasum

Gene sources primary genetic relative of lek progenitor of lek tertiary genetic relative of garlic

Gallery

Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum Allium ampeloprasum

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Native
    • Macaronesia: Spain - Canary Islands
    • Northern Africa: Algeria ; Egypt; Libya ; Morocco; Tunisia
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Azores
    Cultivated
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Native
    • Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
    • Western Asia: Cyprus; Egypt - Sinai; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan
    Cultivated
    • Western Asia: Turkey
    • Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Cultivated
    • Australia: Australia
  • EUROPE
    Native
    • Northern Europe: Ireland; United Kingdom
    • East Europe: Ukraine
    • Southeastern Europe: Former Yugoslavia; Greece ; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France ; Portugal; Spain
    Cultivated
    • Southeastern Europe: Greece; Italy
    • Southwestern Europe: France
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - New York , Ohio, West Virginia
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Illinois , Oklahoma
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
    • South-Central U.S.A.: United States - Texas
    Cultivated
    • Mexico
    • United States
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Cultivated
    • Southern South America: Chile

Biological activities

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Esculetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Plant
Acantholytic
Allyl-sulfide found in Plant
Acaricide
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Acarifuge
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Acetylcholinergic
Glucose found in Plant
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Aggregant
Sucrose found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Allelochemic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Allelopathic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Allergenic
Allyl-sulfide found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anesthetic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anthelmintic
Mannitol found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
AntiADD
Phenylalanine found in Plant
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
AntiBPH
Zinc found in Plant
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
AntiEBV
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiHIV
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
AntiLegionella
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
AntiSpina-Bifida
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiacrodermatitic
Zinc found in Plant
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiadenoviral
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiadrenergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaflatoxin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Alliin found in Plant
Allyl-sulfide found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cycloalliin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Fructose found in Plant
Glutamine found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antialkalotic
Lysine found in Plant
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antialzheimeran
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Antianemic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Antianginal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Polyphenols found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antianorexic
Zinc found in Plant
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiarteriosclerotic
Histidine found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antiarthritic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiasthenic
Ribonucleic-acid found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiatherogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antibiotic
Alliin found in Plant
Antibronchoconstrictor
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticancer
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
Anticanker
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticapillary-Fragility
Esculetin found in Plant
Anticarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Polyphenols found in Plant
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Anticataract
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Methionine found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Anticholinergic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Anticlastogen
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Anticoeliac
Zinc found in Plant
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Anticonvulsant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Lignin found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antidandruff
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antidementia
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Ribonucleic-acid found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Glutamine found in Plant
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Alliin found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Fructose found in Plant
Maltose found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antidiarrheic
Lignin found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antidysenteric
Esculetin found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antidysgeuzic
Zinc found in Plant
Antidyskinetic
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antidysmenorrheic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antielastase
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Arginine found in Plant
Leucine found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Tyrosine found in Plant
Valine found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antifeedant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiflu
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antifuruncular
Zinc found in Plant
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antigenotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Mannitol found in Plant
Antiglossitic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antigrey
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Fructose found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antihemolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Arginine found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antihepatoadenomic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antihepatomic
Saponins found in Plant
Antihepatotic
Methionine found in Plant
Antihepatotoxic
Alliin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Lignoceric-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Lysine found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antihiccup
Sucrose found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antihyperammonemic
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Antihypercholesterolemic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Arginine found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Polyphenols found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antihyperthyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antiimpotence
Arginine found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinfarctal
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Antiinfective
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinfertility
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Arginine found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antiischemic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antiketotic
Fructose found in Plant
Glucose found in Plant
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antileukonychic
Zinc found in Plant
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotriene
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antileukotrienogenic
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antilipolytic
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antimaculitic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antimanic
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antimelanogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Antimetastatic
Zinc found in Plant
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antimitotic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antimorphinic
Aspartic-acid found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Saponins found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antimyelotoxic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antinauseant
Fructose found in Plant
Antineoplastic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antinephritic
Histidine found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Antineuralgic
Alliin found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antinyctalopic
Zinc found in Plant
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antiophthalmic
Sucrose found in Plant
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Flower (2249 ppm);found in Leaf (4528 ppm);found in Root (3650 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antioxidant
Alanine found in Plant
Alliin found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Catalase found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Histidine found in Plant
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Methionine found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Tyrosine found in Plant
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antipellagric
Isoleucine found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Antiperoxynitrite
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Antiphenylketonuric
Tryptophan found in Plant
Tyrosine found in Plant
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antiplaque
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiplatelet
Alliin found in Plant
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antipolio
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprolactin
Zinc found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Antipsychotic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Antiradicular
Alliin found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antirenitic
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antiretardation
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Antiretinotic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antisarcomic
Alliin found in Plant
Antischizophrenic
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Antiscoliotic
Tryptophan found in Plant
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antiseborrheic
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiserotonin
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Antisickling
Asparagine found in Plant
Glutamine found in Plant
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Antispare-Tire
Zinc found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Antistomatitic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Antistroke
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Antisunburn
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Antithiamin
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antithrombic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antithrombotic
Alliin found in Plant
Antithyroid
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Dimethyl-disulfide found in Plant
Antithyrotoxic
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Antitic
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Antitinnitic
Zinc found in Plant
Antitriglyceride
Zinc found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Antitumor
Alliin found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Lignin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Glutamine found in Plant
Histidine found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Threonine found in Plant
Tyrosine found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Antiulcerogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antiuremic
Histidine found in Plant
Antivaccinia
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Antivaricose
Glucose found in Plant
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Antivitiligic
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Phosphorus found in Flower (2249 ppm);found in Leaf (4528 ppm);found in Root (3650 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Aphrodisiac
Arginine found in Plant
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Arteriodilator
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Astringent
Zinc found in Plant
Atherogenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Autotoxic
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Scopoletin found in Plant
CNS-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Depressant
Scopoletin found in Plant
CNS-Paralytic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
CNS-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Alanine found in Plant
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Isochlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Riboflavin found in Flower (11.2 ppm);found in Leaf (9.4 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Serine found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Tyrosine found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Cardiac
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Esculetin found in Plant
Cardioprotective
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Catabolic
Glutamine found in Plant
Chelator
Lignin found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Cholagogue
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Choleretic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Circulotonic
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Clastogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Co-carcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Collagen-Sparing
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Collyrium
Sucrose found in Plant
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Comedogenic
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Copper-Antagonist
Zinc found in Plant
Cosmetic
Esculetin found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Polyphenols found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-2E1-Inhibitor
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Cytoprotective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
DNA-Active
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
DNA-Protective
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Demulcent
Sucrose found in Plant
Deodorant
Zinc found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Esculetin found in Plant
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Diuretic
Arginine found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Asparagine found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Mannitol found in Plant
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Emetic
Mannitol found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
Ergogenic
Zinc found in Plant
Essential
Deoxyribonucleic-acid found in Plant
Histidine found in Plant
Isoleucine found in Plant
Leucine found in Plant
Lysine found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
Threonine found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Valine found in Plant
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
FLavor
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Threonine found in Plant
Valine found in Plant
Fatal
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Fibrinolytic
Cycloalliin found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Flatugenic
Mannitol found in Plant
Raffinose found in Plant
Stachyose found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Fungicide
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Sinapic-acid found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Polyphenols found in Plant
Glutathionigenic
Methionine found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hematopoietic
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Hemostat
Cellulose found in Plant
Hemostatic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Hepatocarcinogenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Alliin found in Plant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Methionine found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Polyphenols found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Hepatotropic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Herbicide
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Histamine-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Hydrocholerectic
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Hyperglycemic
Glucose found in Plant
Hypertensive
Esculetin found in Plant
Sodium found in Leaf (472 ppm)
Hypnotic
Tryptophan found in Plant
Hypoammonemic
Arginine found in Plant
Hypoarginanemic
Lysine found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Alliin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Lignin found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Alliin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Scopoletin found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Alpha-tocopherol found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Saponins found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Immunostimulant
Alliin found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Phosphorus found in Flower (2249 ppm);found in Leaf (4528 ppm);found in Root (3650 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Immunosuppressant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Insectifuge
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Insulinase-Inhibitor
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Insulinogenic
Zinc found in Plant
Insulinotonic
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Irritant
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Juvabional
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Keratolytic
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Lachrymatory
Cycloalliin found in Plant
Larvistat
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Laxative
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Fructose found in Plant
Lignin found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Leptingenic
Zinc found in Plant
Leukotriene-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Lipolytic
Alliin found in Plant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Nicotinic-acid found in Plant
Lipotropic
Methionine found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Lyase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Polyphenols found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Memorigenic
Ribonucleic-acid found in Plant
Memory-Enhancer
Glucose found in Plant
Metal-Chelator
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Monoamine-Precursor
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Tryptophan found in Plant
Tyrosine found in Plant
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Zinc found in Plant
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Musculotropic
Esculetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Myorelaxant
Esculetin found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Zinc found in Plant
NO-Genic
Arginine found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Nematicide
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Neoplastic
Fructose found in Plant
Nephrotoxic
Mannitol found in Plant
Neuroexcitant
Aspartic-acid found in Plant
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Flower (8.3 ppm);found in Leaf (8.5 ppm);found in Root (8 ppm)
Neurotoxic
Glutamic-acid found in Plant
Occuloirritant
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Flower (2249 ppm);found in Leaf (4528 ppm);found in Root (3650 ppm)
Oviposition-Stimulant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Oxidant
Alanine found in Plant
Histidine found in Plant
Parasiticide
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Pemphigenic
Allyl-sulfide found in Plant
Perfumery
Dimethyl-disulfide found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Alliin found in Plant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Photoactive
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Phytoalexin
Scopoletin found in Plant
Phytohormonal
Scopoletin found in Plant
Pituitary-Stimulant
Arginine found in Plant
Preservative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Prolactinogenic
Tryptophan found in Plant
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Iron found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (255 ppm);found in Root (80 ppm)
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
Psychotropic
Polyphenols found in Plant
Radioprotective
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Renotoxic
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Respiradepressant
Allyl-sulfide found in Plant
Roborant
Aspartic-acid found in Plant
Scabicide
Sulfur found in Leaf (700 ppm)
Sedative
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Tryptophan found in Plant
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Plant
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Spermigenic
Arginine found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Squalene-Monooxygenase-Inhibitor
Alliin found in Plant
Sunscreen
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant
Suppository
Stearic-acid found in Plant
Sweetener
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Fructose found in Plant
Galactose found in Plant
Maltose found in Plant
Mannitol found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Testosteronigenic
Zinc found in Plant
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Tremorigenic
Phenylalanine found in Plant
Trichomonicide
Zinc found in Plant
Triglycerigenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Triglycerolytic
Diallyl-sulfide found in Plant
Tumor-Promoter
Tryptophan found in Plant
Tumorigenic
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
P-coumaric-acid found in Plant
UV-Screen
Esculetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Flower (151 ppm);found in Root (1.8 ppm);found in Leaf (230 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Uricogenic
Sucrose found in Plant
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Urine-Acidifier
Methionine found in Plant
Urine-Deodorant
Methionine found in Plant
Uterosedative
Ferulic-acid found in Plant
Scopoletin found in Plant
Varroacide
Oxalic-acid found in Plant
Vasodilator
Arginine found in Plant
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Calcium found in Flower (1361 ppm);found in Root (3796 ppm);found in Leaf (5472 ppm)
Fiber found in Flower (65000 ppm);found in Leaf (94000 ppm)
Niacin found in Flower (53 ppm);found in Leaf (57 ppm)
Potassium found in Leaf (29811 ppm)
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Flower (2367 ppm);found in Leaf (3019 ppm);found in Root (1241 ppm)
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Chlorogenic-acid found in Plant
Sucrose found in Plant
Zinc found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Caffeic-acid found in Plant
Esculetin found in Plant
Folacin found in Plant ;found in Plant
Polyphenols found in Plant
Umbelliferone found in Plant

Search

Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
1-o-caffeoyl-beta-d-glucose Plant
3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydrothiophene Plant
3,5-dialkyltrithiolanes Plant
4-hydroxy-proline Plant
Acetyl-synthetase Plant
Adenylic-acid Plant
Alanine Plant
Alcohol-dehydrogenase Plant
Alliin Plant
Allithiamine Plant
Allyl Plant
Allyl-monosulfide Plant
Allyl-sulfide Plant
Alpha-tocopherol Plant
Aluminum-phosphate Plant
Arginase Plant
Arginine Plant
Ascorbic-acid Flower 400 2,367
Leaf 170 3,019
Root 170 1,241
Ascorbic-acid-oxidase Plant
Ash Flower 4,000 24,000
Root 9,000 66,000
Leaf 8,000 75,000
Asparagine Plant
Aspartic-acid Plant
Beta-carotene Flower 25 151
Root 0.2 1.8
Leaf 0.2 230
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Butyl-sulfide Plant
Caffeic-acid Plant
Calcium Flower 230 1,361
Root 520 3,796
Leaf 520 5,472
Carbohydrates Flower 105,000 621,000
Root 103,000 752,000
Leaf 70,000 767,000
Catalase Plant
Cellulose Plant
Chlorogenic-acid Plant
Cycloalliin Plant
Cytidylic-acid Plant
Dehydroascorbic-acid Plant
Deoxyribonucleic-acid Plant
Di-propyl-thiosulfinates Plant
Diallyl-sulfide Plant
Diketogluconic-acid Plant
Dimethyl-disulfide Plant
Esculetin Plant
Esterase Plant
Ethyl-sulfide Plant
Ethylene-bis-dithio-carbamate Plant
Fat Flower 5,000 30,000
Leaf 3,000 47,000
Root 3,000 22,000
Ferric-phosphate Plant
Ferulic-acid Plant
Fiber Flower 11,000 65,000
Leaf 10,000 94,000
Folacin Plant
Plant
Fructose Plant
Fructosylsucrose Plant
Galactose Plant
Glucofructan Plant
Glucose Plant
Glutamate-dehydrogenase Plant
Glutamic-acid Plant
Glutamine Plant
Guanylic-acid Plant
Hemicellulose Plant
Histidine Plant
Histones Plant
Iron Flower 9 53
Leaf 11 255
Root 11 80
Isochlorogenic-acid Plant
Isoleucine Plant
Kaempferol-3-beta-d-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-xylosyl-beta-d-glucoside Plant
Kaempferol-heteroside Plant
Kilocalories Flower 550 3,250
Root 450 3,280
Leaf 350 3,560
Lactate-dehydrogenase Plant
Leucine Plant
Lignin Plant
Lignoceric-acid Plant
Linoleic-acid Plant
Linolenic-acid Plant
Lysine Plant
Maltose Plant
Mannitol Plant
Methionine Plant
Methyl-alliin Plant
Methyl-sulfide Plant
Myo-inositol Plant
Niacin Flower 9 53
Leaf 5 57
Nicotinic-acid Plant
Odorin Plant
Oxalate-dehydrogenase Plant
Oxalic-acid Plant
P-coumaric-acid Plant
Palmitic-acid Plant
Pectins Plant
Peroxidase Plant
Phenanthrene Plant
Phenol-oxidase Plant
Phenylalanine Plant
Phosphorus Flower 380 2,249
Leaf 480 4,528
Root 500 3,650
Polyphenols Plant
Potassium Leaf 3,160 29,811
Proline Plant
Propane-thiosulfinate Plant
Propyl-disulfide Plant
Propyloalliin Plant
Protein Flower 55,000 325,000
Leaf 22,000 217,000
Root 22,000 161,000
Quercetin-3'-glucoside Plant
Raffinose Plant
Riboflavin Flower 1.9 11.2
Leaf 0.6 9.4
Ribonucleic-acid Plant
S-2,2-propenyl-amino-acid-sulfoxide Plant
Saponins Plant
Scopoletin Plant
Serine Plant
Sideramines Plant
Silicon-dioxide Plant
Sinapic-acid Plant
Sodium Leaf 50 472
Stachyose Plant
Stearic-acid Plant
Succinic-dehydrogenase Plant
Sucrose Plant
Sulfur Leaf 600 700
Sulfur-trioxide Plant
Thiamin Flower 1.4 8.3
Leaf 0.9 8.5
Root 1.1 8
Thiamin-pyrophosphate Plant
Threonine Plant
Tryptophan Plant
Tyrosine Plant
Umbelliferone Plant
Uridylic-acid Plant
Valine Plant
Vit-u Plant
Water Flower 831,000
Leaf 854,000 894,000
Root 863,000
Zinc Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]