Ageratum conyzoides Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
billygoat-plant billygoat-weed bluebonnet bluetop goatweed tropical whiteweed whiteweed

Ageratum conyzoides is native to Tropical America, especially Brazil. Herb 0.5–1 m. high, with ovate leaves 2–6 cm long, and flowers are white to mauve. In Vietnamese, the plant is called cứt lợn due to its growth in dirty areas.

Ageratum conyzoides

Medical use

Economic importance of Ageratum conyzoides

Materials potential as esential oils
Medicines folklore
Vertebrate poisons mamals
Weed potential sed contaminant

Gallery

Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides

Geografical distribution

  • AFRICA
    Naturalized
    • Macaronesia: Portugal - Madeira Islands
    • Northern Africa: Egypt
    • Northeast Tropical Africa: Ethiopia
    • East Tropical Africa: Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda
    • West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon; Congo; Gabon
    • West Tropical Africa: Cote D'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone
    • Southern Africa: Botswana; South Africa; Swaziland
    • Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar; Mauritius
  • ASIA-TEMPERATE
    Naturalized
    • Arabian Peninsula: Yemen
    • China: China
    • Eastern Asia: Japan
    Cultivated
    • China: China
  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Naturalized
    • Indian Subcontinent: India
    • Indo-China: Indochina; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
    • Malesia: Indonesia; New Guinea; Philippines
  • AUSTRALASIA
    Naturalized
    • Australia: Australia
  • EUROPE
    Cultivated
    • Europe
  • NORTHERN AMERICA
    Naturalized
    • Northeastern U.S.A.: United States - Connecticut
    • North-Central U.S.A.: United States - Missouri
    • Southeastern U.S.A.: United States - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina
    • Southwestern U.S.A.: United States - California
    • Mexico
  • PACIFIC
    Naturalized
    • North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii
    • Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Micronesia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau
    • South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji; New Caledonia; Niue; Tonga
    Cultivated
    • Southwestern Pacific: Fiji
  • SOUTHERN AMERICA
    Native
    • Caribbean: Puerto Rico
    • Mesoamerica: El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
    • Northern South America: Venezuela
    • Brazil: Brazil
    • Western South America: Ecuador; Peru
    • Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay; Uruguay
    Naturalized
    • Northern South America: French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname

Biological activities

11B-HSD-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
ACE-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
ATPase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Acaricide
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Allelochemic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Allelopathic
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Allergenic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Analgesic
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Androgenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anemiagenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Anesthetic
Coumarin found in Plant
Angiogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Anorexic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
AntiGTF
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiHIV
Quercetin found in Plant
AntiMS
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
AntiPMS
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiacetylcholinesterase
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Antiacne
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Antiadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Antiaflatoxin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaggregant
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiaging
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiallergic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antialopecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Quercetin found in Plant
Antianaphylactic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiandrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Antiangiogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiarteriosclerotic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiasthmatic
Hcn found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiatherosclerotic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antibacterial
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antibrucellosic
Coumarin found in Plant
Anticancer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Anticariogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticataract
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticolitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticomplementary
Quercetin found in Plant
Anticoronary
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Anticystitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidepressant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidermatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidiabetic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antidiuretic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antidote
Hcn found in Plant
Antieczemic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Antiedemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Antielastase
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiencephalitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiescherichic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiesherichic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antiestrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifeedant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Cadinene found in Plant
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antifertility
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antifibrinolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Antifibrosarcomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiflu
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigastric
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigingivitic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antigliomic
Beta-elemene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Antigonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antigonadotropic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antigranular
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Antiherpetic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihistaminic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihydrophobic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antihyperlipoproteinaemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antihypertensive
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiimplantation
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiinflammatory
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Friedelin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Antileishmanic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antileukotriene-D4
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Antileukotriene
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilipoperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antilymphedemic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antilymphocytic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antilymphomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antimalarial
Beta-selinene found in Plant (32 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimelanomic
Coumarin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimenorrhagic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Antimetastatic
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimitotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antimononuccleotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antimutagenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antimycoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antimyocarditic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinitrosaminic
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antinociceptive
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Antiophidic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Antioxidant
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Antipancreatitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontal
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperiodontic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiperistaltic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipermeability
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiperoxidant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipharyngitic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplaque
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiplasmodial
Beta-selinene found in Plant (32 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipneumonic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Antipodriac
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipolio
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprogestational
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiproliferant
Beta-elemene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostaglandin
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostanoid
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiprostatadenomic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiprostatitic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipsittacotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antipsoriac
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antipyretic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Antiradicular
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiseptic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antiserotonin
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antispasmodic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antistaphylococcic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Antistreptococcic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithiamin
Quercetin found in Plant
Antithrombic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antitoxoplasmotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Antitrypanosomic
Quercetin found in Plant
Antitumor-Promoter
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antitumor
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antitussive
Hcn found in Plant
Antiulcer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Antiviral
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Apoptotic
Beta-elemene found in Plant (16 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Aromatase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Artemicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Bacteristat
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Bradycardiac
Quercetin found in Plant
Bronchosedative
Hcn found in Plant
Bruchiphobe
Coumarin found in Plant
COMT-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
COX-2-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Calcium-Antagonist
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Calmodulin-Antagonist
Quercetin found in Plant
Cancer-Preventive
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-myrcene found in Plant (15 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Candidicide
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Capillariprotective
Quercetin found in Plant
Carcinogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Cardiodepressant
Coumarin found in Plant
Cardiotonic
Coumarin found in Plant
Caspase-8-Inducer
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Catabolic
Quercetin found in Plant
Chemopreventive
Coumarin found in Plant
Choleretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Coleoptophile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Comedolytic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Copper-Chelator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Cytotoxic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
DME-Inhibitor
Coumarin found in Plant
Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Dermatitigenic
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Differentiator
Quercetin found in Plant
Diuretic
Friedelin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Emetic
Coumarin found in Plant
Estrogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Expectorant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
FLavor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Cadinene found in Plant
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Ethyl-vanillin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Febrifuge
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Fungicide
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Gonadotrophic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
HIV-RT-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hemolytic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Hemorrhagic
Coumarin found in Plant
Hemostat
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatomagenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatoprotective
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Hepatotoxic
Coumarin found in Plant
Herbicide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Hypercholesterolemic
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Hypnotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Hypocholesterolemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Hypoglycemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Hypolipidemic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Hypotensive
Kaempferol found in Plant
ICAM-1-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Immunomodulator
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Coumarin found in Plant
Inotropic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Insecticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Hcn found in Plant
Insectifuge
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Insectiphile
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Insulinogenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Irritant
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
JNK-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Juvabional
Coumarin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Larvistat
Coumarin found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Lubricant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Lymphocytogenic
Coumarin found in Plant
Lymphokinetic
Coumarin found in Plant
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
MAO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
MMP-9-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Mast-Cell-Stabilizer
Quercetin found in Plant
Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Metastatic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Mutagenic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NEP-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
NO-Synthase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Narcotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Natriuretic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Nematicide
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Neuroprotective
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ovicide
Coumarin found in Plant
Ovulant
Stigmasterol found in Plant
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
P450-Inducer
Quercetin found in Plant
P450-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PAF-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
PGE2-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
PTK-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Percutaneostimulant
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Perfumery
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-myrcene found in Plant (15 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-selinene found in Plant (32 ppm)
Cadinene found in Plant
Ethyl-vanillin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Pesticide
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Cadinene found in Plant
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Caryophyllene-oxide found in Plant (8 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Hcn found in Plant
Kaempferol found in Plant
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Quercetin found in Plant
Phagocytotic
Coumarin found in Plant
Pheromonal
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Phospholipase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Piscicide
Coumarin found in Plant
Plasmodicide
Quercetin found in Plant
Proliferant
Quercetin found in Plant
Propecic
Linoleic-acid found in Seed (140135 ppm)
Oleic-acid found in Seed (18075 ppm)
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Protisticide
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quinone-Reductase-Inducer
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Respirastimulant
Hcn found in Plant
Respirodepressant
Coumarin found in Plant
Rodenticide
Coumarin found in Plant
Hcn found in Plant
Sedative
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Coumarin found in Plant
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Stigmasterol found in Plant
Soap
Palmitic-acid found in Seed (42315 ppm)
Spasmogenic
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Alpha-terpinene found in Plant (30 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Camphene found in Plant (38 ppm)
Spermicide
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
TNF-alpha-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Teratologic
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tranquilizer
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Transdermal
Alpha-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Beta-pinene found in Plant (6.5 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Farnesol found in Plant (3.5 ppm)
Tumorigenic
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Ubiquiot
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Ulcerogenic
Beta-sitosterol found in Plant
Uterotrophic
Kaempferol found in Plant
VEGF-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasodilator
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
Vasomotor-Stimulant
Hcn found in Plant
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Quercetin found in Plant
cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant
iNOS-Inhibitor
Kaempferol found in Plant
Quercetin found in Plant

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene Plant
6-demetoxyageratochromene Plant 60 470
6-vinyl-demethoxyageratochromene Plant 0.7 6
Ageratochromene Plant 62 500
Alpha-cubebene Plant
Alpha-pinene Plant 0.8 6.5
Alpha-terpinene Plant 4 30
Ash Plant 97,200
Beta-caryophyllene Plant 34 270
Beta-cubebene Plant 4 32
Beta-elemene Plant 2 16
Beta-farnesene Plant 5 37.5
Beta-myrcene Plant 2 15
Beta-pinene Plant 0.8 6.5
Beta-selinene Plant 4 32
Beta-sitosterol Plant
Cadinene Plant
Camphene Plant 5 38
Caryophyllene-oxide Plant 1 8
Conyzorigin Plant
Coumarin Plant
Dotriacontene Plant
Endo-borneol Plant 0.5 4
Endo-bornyl-acetate Plant 2 18
Eo Plant 200 1,600
Ethyl-eugenol Plant
Ethyl-vanillin Plant
Farnesol Plant 0.5 3.5
Fat Seed 256,000
Friedelin Plant
Hcn Plant
Hexadecenoic-acid Seed 2,535
Kaempferol Plant
Kaempferol-3,7-diglucoside Plant
Kaempferol-3-o-rhamnosylglucoside Plant
Linoleic-acid Seed 140,135
Linolenic-acid Seed 30,565
Oleic-acid Seed 18,075
Palmitic-acid Seed 42,315
Quercetin Plant
Quercetin-3,7-diglucoside Plant
Quercetin-3-o-rhamnosylglucoside Plant
Stigmasterol Plant
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]