Aegle marmelos Health effects and herbal facts

Known as
bael baeltree belfruit-tree Bengal-quince golden-apple Indian baelfruit

Aegle marmelos, commonly known as bael, Bengal quince, golden apple, stone apple, wood apple, bili, is a species of tree native to India. It is present throughout Southeast Asia as a naturalized species. The tree is considered to be sacred by Hindus. Its fruits are used in traditional medicine and as a food throughout its range.

Aegle marmelos

Medical use

Economic importance of Aegle marmelos

Human food fruit
Gene sources research in plant biology
Materials esential oils gum/resin wod
Medicines folklore

Gallery

Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos

Geografical distribution

  • ASIA-TROPICAL
    Native
    • Indian Subcontinent: India - Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Nepal
    • North Indian Ocean: India - Andaman and Nicobar
    • Indo-China: Myanmar
    Cultivated
    • Indian Subcontinent: India; Sri Lanka
    • Indo-China: Thailand
    • Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia

Biological activities

Abortifacient
Fagarine found in Bark (3000 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Absorbent
Starch found in Seed (175000 ppm)
Acaricide
Citronellal found in Leaf
Acidifier
Tartaric-acid found in Fruit (47 ppm)
Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Additive
Tartaric-acid found in Fruit (47 ppm)
Adrenostimulant
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Allergenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Analgesic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Anthelmintic
Marmelosin found in Fruit (4000 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
AntiAGE
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
AntiCFS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
AntiCTS
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
AntiHIV
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
AntiLyme
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
AntiPMS
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antiacetylcholinesterase
D-limonene found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Antiacne
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiacrodynic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antiaggregant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiaging
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiakathisic
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antialcoholic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antiallergenic
Citral found in Leaf
Antiallergic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antialzheimeran
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antiamblyopic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antianaphylactic
Citral found in Leaf
Antianemic
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antianginal
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antianorectic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antianxiety
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antiarabiflavinotic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antiarrhythmic
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fagarine found in Bark (3000 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Antiarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antiasthmatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiatherosclerotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antibacillary
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Antibackache
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antibacterial
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiberiberi
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Anticancer
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Anticanker
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Anticarcinomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Anticardiospasmic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Anticariogenic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Anticarpal-Tunnel
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Anticataract
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Anticephalagic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Anticervicaldysplasic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Anticheilitic
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antichilblain
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Anticlimacteric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Anticold
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Anticolitic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Anticonvulsant
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Anticoronary
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antidecubitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antideliriant
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antidementia
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antidepressant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Antidermatitic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antidiabetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antidiarrheic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antidiuretic
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Antidysenteric
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antidyspeptic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antidysphagic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antieczemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiedemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiencephalitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiencephalopathic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antiendometriotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiepileptic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antifatigue
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antifibrotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiflu
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Antigallstone
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antigastritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antigingivitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiglaucomic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiglossitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antihangover
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antiheartburn
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antihelicobacter
Citral found in Leaf
Antihemorrhagic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antihepatitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antihepatotoxic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiherpetic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antihistaminic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antihyperactivity
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antihyperkeratotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antihyperkinetic
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antihypertensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiichythyotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiinfertility
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiinflammatory
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Marmin found in Bark
Antiinsomniac
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antiinsomnic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antikeratitic
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antileishmanic
Citral found in Leaf
Antilepric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antileukodermic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Antileukoplakic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antilipolytic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antilipoperoxidant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antilithic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antilupus
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antimaculitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antimalarial
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Antimastitic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antimeasles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antimelanomic
D-limonene found in Leaf
Antimenopausal
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antimenorrhagic
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Antimigraine
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antimitotic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Antimutagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antimyocarditic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antinephritic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antinesidioblastosic
Starch found in Seed (175000 ppm)
Antineuralgic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antineuramidase
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antineurasthenic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antineuritic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antineuropathic
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antinitrosic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiobesity
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Antiophidic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiorchitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiosteoarthritic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiosteoporotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (1300 ppm)
Antioxidant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiozenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antipapillomic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiparkinsonian
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antiparotitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antipellagric
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antiperiodontitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antiphotophobic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Antipityriasic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antipneumonic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antipodriac
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antipoliomyelitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Antiporphyric
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antiproliferant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Antipsoriac
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Antipyretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Antiradicular
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antirenitic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiretinotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antirheumatalgic
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Antirheumatic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antirhinitic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiscorbutic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antiscotomic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antiseptic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Antishingles
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antishock
Citral found in Leaf
Antispasmodic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Fagarine found in Bark (3000 ppm)
Marmin found in Bark
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Antistaphylococcic
Citronellal found in Leaf
Antistreptococcic
Citronellal found in Leaf
Antistress
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antistroke
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Antisyndrome-X
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Antitic
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Antitubercular
Psoralen found in Fruit
Antitumor-Promoter
D-limonene found in Leaf
Psoralen found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antitumor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antiulcer
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antivertigo
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Antiviral
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Antixerophthalmic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Anxiolytic
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (1300 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Apoptotic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Artemicide
Psoralen found in Fruit
Asthma-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Bacteriophagicide
Psoralen found in Fruit
Barbituate-Synergist
Citral found in Leaf
Beta-Blocker
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Bronchorelaxant
Citral found in Leaf
CNS-Depressant
Skimmianine found in Leaf
CNS-Stimulant
Skimmianine found in Leaf
COX-1-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
COX-2-Inhibitor
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Calcium-Antagonist
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Psoralen found in Fruit
Calcium-Channel-Blocker
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Cancer-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Riboflavin found in Fruit (31 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Candidicide
Citronellal found in Leaf
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Carcinogenic
Citral found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Cardioprotective
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Cardiotoxic
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Caspase-3-Inducer
Citral found in Leaf
Chelator
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Chemopreventive
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Circulotonic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Cold-preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Collagenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Colorant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Contraceptive
Psoralen found in Fruit
Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Cytotoxic
Citral found in Leaf
Psoralen found in Fruit
Detoxicant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Differentiator
D-limonene found in Leaf
Diuretic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Ecbolic
Fagarine found in Bark (3000 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Embryotoxic
Citronellal found in Leaf
Emollient
Starch found in Seed (175000 ppm)
Estrogenic
Citral found in Leaf
Expectorant
Citral found in Leaf
FLavor
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
D-limonene found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Tartaric-acid found in Fruit (47 ppm)
Fibrinolytic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Fistula-Preventive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Fungicide
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Gastroprotective
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Genotoxic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Glaucomagenic
Citral found in Leaf
Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Glutathionigenic
Citral found in Leaf
Hepatoprotective
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Hepatotoxic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Herbicide
Citral found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Hypertensive
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Hyperthermic
Phellandrene found in Leaf (3360 ppm)
Hypocholesterolemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
D-limonene found in Leaf
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Hypoglycemic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Hypolipidemic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Hypotensive
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Hypothermic
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Hypouricemic
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Immunomodulator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Immunostimulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Phosphorus found in Fruit (1300 ppm)
Immunosuppressant
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Insecticide
D-limonene found in Leaf
Psoralen found in Fruit
Insectifuge
Citronellal found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Interferon-Synergist
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Interferonogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Irritant
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Phellandrene found in Leaf (3360 ppm)
Tartaric-acid found in Fruit (47 ppm)
Larvicide
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Laxative
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Lithogenic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Litholytic
D-limonene found in Leaf
MAO-A-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit
MAO-B-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit
MAO-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Motor-Depressant
Citronellal found in Leaf
Mucogenic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Mucolytic
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Mutagenic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Myorelaxant
Citral found in Leaf
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Myotonic
Skimmianine found in Leaf
NF-kB-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf
NO-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf
Nematicide
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Nephrotoxic
D-limonene found in Leaf
Neuroprotective
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Osteogenic
Phosphorus found in Fruit (1300 ppm)
P450-2B1-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
D-limonene found in Leaf
Perfumery
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Pesticide
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
D-limonene found in Leaf
Marmelosin found in Fruit (4000 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Psoralen found in Fruit
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Thiamin found in Fruit (33 ppm)
Phagocytotic
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Photocarcinogenic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Phototoxic
Psoralen found in Fruit
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Phytoalexin
Psoralen found in Fruit
Poultice
Starch found in Seed (175000 ppm)
Prooxidant
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Iron found in Fruit (15 ppm)
Prostatitigenic
Citral found in Leaf
Psychotropic
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)
Sedative
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Sequestrant
Tartaric-acid found in Fruit (47 ppm)
Serotoninergic
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Spasmogenic
Phellandrene found in Leaf (3360 ppm)
Teratogenic
Citral found in Leaf
Citronellal found in Leaf
Thymoprotective
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor
Psoralen found in Fruit
Tranquilizer
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Trichomonicide
Citral found in Leaf
P-cymene found in Leaf (1020 ppm)
Trypanocide
Citral found in Leaf
Tumor-Promoter
Phellandrene found in Leaf (3360 ppm)
Tyrosinase-Inhibitor
Citral found in Leaf
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Ubiquiot
Beta-carotene found in Fruit (1.3 ppm)
Ulcerogenic
Cuminaldehyde found in Leaf (300 ppm)
Uricosuric
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Urinary-Acidulant
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Uterocontractant
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Vasodilator
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Calcium found in Fruit (2205 ppm)
Fiber found in Fruit (75325 ppm)
Niacin found in Fruit (26 ppm)
Potassium found in Fruit (15585 ppm)
Skimmianine found in Leaf
Vulnerary
Ascorbic-acid found in Fruit (1330 ppm)
Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor
Tannin found in Fruit (90000 ppm);found in Petiole (200000 ppm)

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Chemicals detected

Chemical Plant part Low ppm High ppm
Aegelin Leaf 2,000
Aegelinine Leaf
Ascorbic-acid Fruit 80 1,330
Ash Fruit 10,400 44,155
Beta-carotene Fruit 0.5 1.3
Calcium Fruit 850 2,205
Carbohydrates Fruit 281,000 901,300
Cineole Leaf
Citral Leaf
Citronellal Leaf
Cuminaldehyde Leaf 300
D-limonene Leaf
Eo Leaf 6,000
Fagarine Bark 3,000
Fat Fruit 2,000 8,860
Seed 119,000
Fiber Fruit 29,000 75,325
Gamma-sitosterol Leaf
Iron Fruit 6 15
Kilocalories Fruit 1,330 3,455
Marmelosin Fruit 300 4,000
Marmin Bark
N-2-ethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethylcinnamide Leaf
N-2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethylcinnamamide Leaf
N-2-methoxy-2-(4-{3',3'-dimethylalloxy}phenyl)-ethylcinnamide Leaf
Niacin Fruit 1 26
O-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-halfordinol Leaf
P-cymene Leaf 1,020
Phellandrene Leaf 3,360
Phosphorus Fruit 500 1,300
Potassium Fruit 6,000 15,585
Protein Fruit 18,000 58,170
Psoralen Fruit
Riboflavin Fruit 12 31
Skimmianine Leaf
Starch Seed 175,000
Sugars Fruit 46,000
Tannin Fruit 90,000
Petiole 200,000
Tartaric-acid Fruit 21 47
Thiamin Fruit 1.3 33
Water Fruit 549,600 615,000
Reference: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online Database]